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How Artificial Intelligence Can Affect Developments In Africa

Nzekwe Henry October 3

For some time now, the global tech scene has somewhat been abuzz with activities centered around the subject of Artificial Intelligence (AI) which can be thought to serve up quite an exciting prospect — and for good reasons too.

It is not uncommon to have tech blokes and geeks come up with all sorts of innovations which, at times, can even seem like something out of a sci-fi movie. While all these may come across as promising and thrilling in some quarters, it is kind of a whole different narrative on the African continent. The implementation of the technology seems to be mostly marred by the fear of missing out and falling further behind established economies as against any genuine anticipation or calculation of how the technology can make lives better. And this trepidation and dark cloud surrounding the technology is not exactly helped by figures from the World Economic Forum which estimates that technology might be well on its way to causing around five million job losses worldwide by the year 2020.

In spite of the cynicism and skepticism still trailing the technology on the continent, a more open stance might just do us all a solid. We may indeed be in for what seems like a machine and robot invasion, and we might as well make the most of all the automation.

Across various parts of the continent, artificial intelligence can be leveraged to telling effect to bring about significant improvements across diverse sectors. From healthcare in Ghana to finance in Zimbabwe, the technology can serve to eliminate apparent shortcomings which exist in the form of inadequacies in physical infrastructure; a situation that leaves a lot to be desired on the part of consumers. The technology can also contribute to increased labor productivity as it boasts the capacity to free up more time for skilled labor, which might otherwise be less-than-gainfully employed.

But these changes are not going to just surface at the stroke of a magic wand. To cash in on the benefits of this novel technology, a combination of African governments, investors, and NGOs might have their work cut out them in the area getting preparations into top gear to herald the transformation that is expected to accompany what is primarily referred to as the fourth industrial revolution. A revolution that is envisaged to train workers for complex tasks, reform laws, and revamp our educational system, intending to bringing into reality what can be described as a modern workplace.

What It Looks Like For The Future Of Work In Africa

Automation is almost certainly expected to significantly cut down on job openings in such areas as call-centers, factories, and rote manufacturing. Interestingly, these jobs are known to serve up the most opportunities to African youths, even though rapid urbanization, unchecked rural-urban migration, and high unemployment rates significantly hamper any chance of making any significant headway on this front.

In truth, it is not exactly out of place to assert that the rate of population growth in Africa is several leagues ahead of what is available by way of job opportunities. And some of these novel technologies may have a hand in this. It, against this backdrop, that ‘the future of work’ now seems like a bleak prospect when examined through all the mire, especially from the perspective of a continent that is still bedeviled by staggering unemployment rates.

A considerable amount of jobs are being sacrificed on the altar of increasing efficiency as labor-intensive industries are now adopting these automated systems, which to be fair, could do a better job than some of those job seekers who are somewhat underskilled. Figures from McKinsey even make for gloomier reading as it is estimated that around 13 percent of South Africa’s job functions would have been lost to automation by the year 2020. And to think the country recorded an unemployment rate that was leaning towards 30 percent about a year ago.

The same danger looms around Ethiopia; a country that is widely touted as the next manufacturing hub in Africa, where automation in such employment-rich sectors as agriculture and textiles may yield mixed feelings. And this has all the makings of a similar narrative from Botswana where robot workers can be implicated in the significantly battered bargaining power of labor unions which protect the interests of cashiers and shop assistants.

Such technologies are known to offer greater efficiency and productivity, while also reducing the pressure on company wage bills especially because the population of low-skilled workers is experiencing something of rapid growth in emerging economies. And as such, AI keeps gathering momentum and show no signs of slowing down. With these in mind, it is little wonder why companies like Accenture Nigeria are of the opinion that AI capabilities, rather than brand, will be given more importance when consumers make choices on products and services in the next five years. Although this claim may be far from justifiable at the moment, it does paint a picture.

How AI Can Be Used To Africa’s Advantage

In spite of the tales of woe and doom that are rife whenever AI is mentioned in the same breath as the development of Africa, it can do a solid to the growth of the African economy if leveraged with some insightful action plan.

The relationship between economic development and worker productivity seems like an obvious one and improving the latter could work wonders on the bottom lines that serve as indicators of the former. And AI can help bring about those improvements.

Valid cases in point exist in the form of countries like Kenya and Nigeria where it would seem ideas run aplenty, but funds for the execution of these ideas are the major bottlenecks. Incorporating automation into such ideas may well mean leaner models which are just as or even more efficient than the regular systems. Instead of taking away job opportunities from employees, such technology could serve to empower low-skilled workers and impart them with the know-how to take on responsibilities that are even more complex. And this will also rub off positively on the education and skills training needs which are clamored for in countries that lack them.

More so, through AI web-based training programs, low-skilled workers could be imparted with sophisticated skills, and as is dictated by the design of the technology, automatic responses in the form of settings adjustments can be made by the system as the worker progresses in understanding and knowledge of the skill. African companies could use such an AI-powered mobile learning platform, of which San Francisco’s Volley for Enterprise represents a prime example as a learning platform that serves up corporate systems, to enhancing continuous training and closing knowledge gaps. Such technology could come in handy in countries like South Africa where unemployment still poses a problem mostly because vacancies remain unfilled mainly due to the unavailability of workers of the requisite skill.

Chatbots which are employed in the services industry, for example, function to relieve customer service representatives of less-demanding tasks, thus, affording them more time to attend to more complex assignments. A good illustration of this function can be cited in the form of Kudi.ai; a tool that combines AI and human agents with the aim of offering localized client care and professionalism for utility providers and telecom service operators. The Y Combinator-backed app allows users to send payments, pay bills, and add money to their cell phone plan in a secure manner by reaching out the mobile chat robot, “Kudi,” via texting on Facebook Messenger, Skype, and other social media platforms.

AI can also play a role in the protection of workers, with a good example being South Korea’s DRC-Hubo which is necessarily a robot that functions to guarantee the safety of individuals who work in mines and nuclear plants by handling such operations as capturing detailed information, scouting, and operating drills.

In a country like Nigeria, AI can be called upon to control the infant mortality rate which is known to be troubling the healthcare system of the Western African nation. A Nigerian health-tech startup, Ubenwa, appears to be already making significant strides in this sector as it leverages AI for the deployment of rapid, remote medical diagnoses.

Through the startup’s mobile app, patients can receive an instant diagnosis, and even information about where to get medication, after inputting their symptoms using a variety of communication options. This kind of technology can serve to improve healthcare efficiency in the country by taking care of things on this front while doctors are allowed ample time to handle the more critical cases that require in-person attention. Developments like this bring about increased access for all and serve as further testament to how AI can help us get around the bottlenecks associated with the shortage of physical infrastructure.

AI can also come in handy in the area of protecting the integrity of the financials of businesses, with an example being Ayasdi. It is quite interesting to note that HSBC has already employed Ayasdi to telling effect in changing its approach to handling the risk of financial crimes with a view to checking money laundering, fraud, and other threats to its financials. The AI program can crunch massive data sets, unearth discrepancies, and forewarn as per envisaged financial hiccups. Most finance companies of today’s world are leaning towards technologies that significantly reduce risk profiles and shield against setbacks, and as such, AI can be expected to see more use in this regard.

The Role Of African Governments In The AI Revolution

The digital revolution of the continent ought to be championed by governments to ensure that these technologies have a significant impact on the lives of the populace. An excellent place to start would be to gather genuine knowledge as per the merits and demerits of AI disruption on the continent and then channel appropriate efforts towards responding to the technology’s integration.

The policies of African governments should lean towards two areas of focus which are primarily centered around encouraging a dynamic and transparent regulatory framework, as well as the implementation of extensive educational reforms from primary to tertiary institutions.

AI-focused regulations ought to be imparted with a reasonable degree of transparency as this will encourage innovation. Such regulations should also stipulate that companies follow guidelines in line with international best practices. There should also be a conscious effort, especially on the part of local governments, to not give off an air of hostility to the technology — whether by way of reflexive blocks or overregulation.

On this note, it does seem quite encouraging that many African countries like Rwanda are already leveraging AI. Back in 2016, the government of the Eastern African nation was reported to have signed a deal with Zipline; a medical drone delivery service that delivers medical supplies and blood to otherwise inaccessible Rwandan communities within minutes. Other African governments can take a cue from this development and summon the full potentials of AI, as other opportunities abound in such areas security footage analysis, customer service chatbots, and even self-driving public transportation systems.

The reach of AI should also be extended to the educational sector where government oversight ought to be in tandem with reform to ensure that citizens make the most of AI developments instead appearing to be adversely affected by it. In some African countries, it would seem that rote memorization is favored in the school education curricula — which is a long way off from the educational ideals of fashioning creative and analytical minds.

With that in mind, it could be surmised that Africa’s education systems could use a shift to frameworks which support the development of fields that are considered relevant to the job market of the near future — which include the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). African governments could also ply the route of providing grants to support studies and research into the STEM fields, as well as information and communication. This will serve to boost application and afford underprivileged students access to advanced technological studies that may otherwise remain elusive. The educational sector holds strategic importance as it is considered the incubator within which the faculties, capacities, and technical skills that are required for one to thrive in a job market that is increasingly being transformed by AI are honed.

On the other hand, investors are not left out of the party as they too have a role to play in the proceedings. In their bid to make shrewd investments that can yield substantial profits, they should also pay attention to improving the lives of people. Investments into companies that use AI to achieve a recognizable social and developmental impact can be placed on the front-burner. This can also be made by forming partnerships with civil society groups.

Another way investors can get in on the act is by throwing some of their financial weight behind tech hubs as a way of ensuring that the impact of AI is felt across various segments of the African society and economy. Kenya’s iHub serves up a prime example in this regard as the one of the most successful technology hub is known to have secured funding from the likes of Omidyar Network. This investment network, who themselves are known to have weighed in with considerable funds in a number of emerging tech companies including South Africa’s Giraffe which is an online marketplace that offers job openings to mid-skilled employees.

AI may have caused eyebrows to raise for the wrong reasons in a number of African markets, but if done right, it could well spell the beginning of many good things. Looking past what it has in the offing by way of social innovation, the view may well reveal a rare opportunity for far-reaching economic transformation. Having almost seamlessly adopted mobile telephony and internet banking systems already, Africa seems poised to make the most of the innovations and developments that could spring forth from AI.

South African Supply-Chain App Khula! Wins Grand Prize Worth USD 14 K As MTN Business App Of The Year

Nzekwe Henry October 16

Khula!; a South African app that serves to link up farmers in emerging markets with the formal marketplace, has clinched top honors at this year’s edition of the MTN Business App Of The Year Awards.

In addition to being named the Business App of the Year, the platform has also received recognition in a special category dubbed; Best Agricultural Solution, as it has also emerged the winner in that category. As part of the perks that come with clinching the award, the developers of the app are now entitled to a trip to Silicon Valley in the U.S., worth up to USD 14 K in cash.

The app, Khula!, is known to facilitate delivery on bulk orders from supermarkets, restaurant chains, and even homes. This it does by effectively creating “one big virtual farm” which is basically comprised of multiple emerging farms for the purpose of crowd-sourcing produce to meet demands.

The platform’s complete software suite also incorporates an eCommerce web platform which makes it possible for clients to place orders from farmers. It also comes with an on-demand logistics solution which allows for the completion of deliveries by independent contractors.

According to Wanda Matandela, CEO of MTN Business, the awards afforded the telecommunications company the chance to place innovative solutions on the front burner and render support to these innovations with a view to helping them scale and go fully commercial, as well as help foster job creation in South Africa.

Industry experts, app developers, and past recipients of the award were amongst the panel of judges who selected and scrutinized the offerings of the shortlisted candidates of this year’s MTN Business App of the Year Awards.

Amongst other winners in the latest edition of the award were Pineapple (Best Consumer Solution),  Cowa Bunga (Best Enterprise Solution), Digemy Knowledge Partner and Besmarter (Best Incubated Solution), and Bestee App (Most Innovative Solution/Best Breakthrough Developer).

Other award recipients included such names as Stokfella (Best South African Solution), Difela Hymns (Women in STEM Solution), The African Cyber Gaming League App (Best Gaming Solution), dbTrack (Best Health Solution), Ctrl (Best Financial Solution), and Xander English 1-20 which took home the award in the Best Education Solution category.

 

 

Image via LinkedIn

South African Tech Teams Scoop Cash Rewards In The SAB Foundation Awards

Nzekwe Henry October 16

Around a total of USD 875 K in cash rewards have been doled out by the SAB Foundation to a number of South African startups and tech teams who have distinguished themselves to merit recognition in this year’s edition of the Social Innovation and Disability Empowerment Awards.

Hustlenomics; an affordable housing provider, as well as Clothes to Good clinched cash prizes worth USD 90 K and USD 84 K respectively for their offerings. While the former was recognized in the Social Innovation Award category, the former took home the accolades in Disability Empowerment Award category.

The SAB Foundation Awards are targeted at innovators, entrepreneurs, and institutions that have developed prototypes of products that are designed to tackle social problems or early-stage businesses that have set their sights on addressing social concerns.

The organization is known to offer assistance in the form of financing and mentorship to social innovations that are identified as possessing a recognizably viable business model while serving up veritable solutions to critical social problems. The SAB Foundation also claims to have disbursed more than USD 5.2 Mn since its inception in an effort to promote social innovation. More so, a total of 163 social enterprises are believed to have benefitted from the offerings of the Foundation.

The winners in the Social Innovation category, Hustlenomics, is a platform which makes it possible for underprivileged families who are holed up in the squalid conditions of informal backyard shacks to build lasting structures in their place. The startup does this by employing alternative building technology which incorporates the use of interlocking bricks made out of recycled materials. The new structures cost the homeowners virtually nothing as the housing projects are financed by means of a shared-home financing model. This model allows for the rental home income raked in by the completed structures to be used in offsetting development costs before full ownership of the property is ultimately transferred to the landowner.

Following Hustlenomics closely as second and third-place winners in the Social Innovation category are smart farming tech solution, Famru, and a microfinance solution created by InvoiceWorx for retailers in the informal sector; Spaza Credit. Both teams took home USD 63 K and USD 49 K respectively.

It appears there was enough to go around for everyone as shortlisted finalists in the Developmental Award category also got in on the act with such names as Fix Forward, Solar Lab in a Bag and ejoobi, taking home between USD 28 K to USD 34 K in cash rewards respectively. Bursary Network and Impulse Biomed were also rewarded with seed grants worth USD 14 K each.

Clothes to Good; the winner of the Disability Empowerment Award, was rewarded for helping to provide sustainable jobs and micro-business opportunities for people with disabilities by means of its clothing recycling program. Steps Clubfoot Care and Coral Tech’s VoQal took home USD 56 K and USD 42 K respectively for finishing in second and third place respectively. In what could be described as a good day at the office for Steps Clubfoot Care, the first runner-up in the Disability Empowerment Award category also scooped the Audience Award which came with a cash reward of USD 10 K. Three other shortlisted finalists in the said category also went home with USD 21 K as recipients of a special Developmental Award.

 

 

Image SourceSAGoodNews

Meet Silas Adekunle: The Nigerian Prodigy Who Is Fast-Becoming The King Of Robotics

Nzekwe Henry October 16

Africans are known to be making waves and holding their own amongst their peers on the global tech scene, and one Nigerian robotics engineer cum gaming guru is taking this to a whole new level. 26-year-old Silas Adekunle is a Nigerian robotics engineer who is considered one of the highest paid and smartest in the field. And as you will soon find out, these are anything but purported or bogus claims.

At a time when the Nigerian tech scene appears to be playing catch up with their counterparts in the developed world, the young robotics engineer seems to be pulling off remarkable feats in the world of robotics and giving ingenuity and innovation a whole new meaning,

Silas Adekunle, Nigerian robotics engineer

Adekunle, who recently got snapped up by global technology and software giants, Apple Inc., to become one of the world ’s highest paid engineers on the robotics scene, was born and raised to his teens in Nigeria. Having had some of his education in Nigeria, he relocated to the United Kingdom where he completed his secondary school education before enrolling into the University of the West of England to pursue a career in robotics. This was going to pay off as the Nigerian engineer graduated Summa Cum Laude having bagged first class honors from the institution.

Silas Adekunle created Reach Robotics in 2013. The company is known to channel efforts towards incorporating Augmented Reality (AR) into gaming for the purpose of performing functions. Fast forward four years down the line and the youngster already carries invaluable robotics experience under his belt. This feat is believed to have earned him the position of team leader in the Robotics In Schools program.

The Robotics In Schools program is targeted at honing the skills of students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. His role in the program is believed to have triggered his ingenuity and inspired the idea which led him to another project which involved developing robotics to make education more engaging and entertaining for students in the STEM disciplines.

Silas Adekunle, Nigerian robotics engineer

But the young Nigerian genius was far from done as he again caused ripples on the tech scene when he got robotics circles buzzing after the launch of Mekamon in 2017. In Mekamon, Adekunle is said to have built what is believed to be the world’s first gaming robot. The robot is considered unique in that it possesses the inherent ability to customize its features for the purpose of performing personalized functions. Mekamon may have become an instant hit post-launch but putting the gaming bot together was anything but a cake walk. The young Nigerian’s chances of success were hampered initially when he encountered difficulties in securing funds for the project. But sheer persistence, resourcefulness, and resilience got him over the line, and Mekamon reportedly generated USD 7.5 Mn after its initial launch, having had 500 units sold.

The remarkable success enjoyed by Mekamon can be considered to have opened the floodgates as support began to stream in aplenty soon after the initial sell-out of the bot. London Venture Partners weighed in with USD 10 Mn and Adekunle’s company, Reach Robotics, wrapped up a deal with Apple in the same year — a deal which means the company now has exclusive sales in Apple stores.

The quality and design of Adekunle’s creations are deemed impressive owing to their ability to show emotion with movements that are subtly-calibrated. His four-legged “battle bots” are priced at around USD 300 by Apple, and they are featured in almost all Apple stores in the US and UK. As he told Forbes in an interview earlier this year, while techies and geeks may have accounted for most of the initial scramble for the product, the robot is now beginning to draw patronage from a growing number of parents presumably due to their STEM application which can serve to get children interested in those lines of study.

Image result for Meet Silas Adekunle: The Nigerian Robotics Genius images

“Balance, shared ideas, time management, and being oneself”, are the words and phrases fondly associated with the young robotics engineer as the tonic for the successes he has so far enjoyed. As his works have gained traction, so too has he gained recognition. Adekunle was listed in this year’s Forbes 30 Under 30 Europe: Technology. According to TheBossNewspapers, he was also named “Someone to Watch in 2018” by the Black Hedge Fund Group.

Having taken the world by storm with his genius, Adekunle can be thought to be gearing up for even more feats. He currently puts in work at the Bristol Robotics Lab, which can be considered the cream of the crop of research centers in the U.K. Now, here’s to Africans all over the world who are doing the continent proud!

 

 

Image Credits: QED, Face2AFaceAfrica, JejeGuysEmpire, Naij.NG

Internet Ventures: 5 Africans Founders Who Have Railed In Massive Online Cash

Andrew Christian October 16

In the course of the past two decades, a significant number of digital ventures have been springing up from different parts of the world, due to the increasing embrace of knowledge technologies, information and social media. Several African entrepreneurs have also carved out online niches to birth economic benefits, employment and in the same way, enable globalization. Pivotal people such as Mark Zuckerberg, Sergey Brin, Steve Chen, Chad Hurley and Jawed Karim (YouTube partners), as well as Lawrence Page have been scintillating the internet scene and cashing in big on the international front. So what about Africa? The continent is definitely not missing out, as innovative minds in the motherland are citing and exploiting internet opportunities, making them worthy of celebration and emulation. Here are five of them who have built successful online ventures.

Elon Musk – Co-founder PayPal, South Africa

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The legendary Elon Musk from South Africa is the co-founder PayPal. The entrepreneur, who has an African father and a Canadian mother, is one of the brains behind what has to be the most internationally recognized and used payments system. But that isn’t the only of his accomplishment, as he also co-founded X.com in March 2002 – a financial service and email payment company. In a matter of one year, the venture acquired Confinity – a company originally formed to beam money between Palm Pilots. The combined entity then capitalized on email payment through the PayPal domain. In February of 2001, X.com was officially renamed to PayPal, which was later acquired by eBay for USD 1.5 Bn in 2002 via a stock deal. Before its sale, PayPal’s 11.7 percent shares formed the coffers of Elon Musk, making him the largest shareholder in the company.

Kamal Budhabatti – Founder Craft Silicon, Kenya

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Kamal, who is nicknamed Kenya’s Bill Gate, is the fuel to the engine and the man behind the wheels of Craft Silicon. He founded it to be a Kenyan software company that provides core banking, Microsoft, mobile, switch solutions software and electronic payments services for more than 200 institutional clients in over 40 countries spread throughout Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas. Craft Silicon boasts of an office in the all-time Silicon Valley in San Francisco, which makes it one of the quite few Kenyan companies ever to bask in such affiliation. With its more than USD 50 Mn market value, the company is causing ripples in the African business ecosystem, driving tech in the East African region and putting Kenya on the world map of entrepreneurship. Kamal Budhabatti’s idea of a venture now rakes in annual revenue of USD 6 Mn.

Jason Njoku – Founder Iroko TV, Nigeria

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Jason, who happens to be one of the few Nigerian entrepreneurs that beat the odds of raising capital even in impossible situations, is the founder and CEO of Iroko TV in Nigeria. The internet company is now reported to be the largest distributor of African movies in the world. While that may come as a shock to you, this may be an absorber – Iroko TV is labeled as the Netflix of Africa according to a Forbes publication. In 2013, Jason’s business was able to raise USD 8 Mn in venture capital from Tiger Global Management, which is a New York-based private equity and hedge fund being managed by billionaire Chase Coleman. Iroko TV is an online streaming website that makes enormous profits from lucrative content distribution deals with companies such as Daily Motion, iTunes, Amazon, and Vimeo. According to analysts, Iroko TV could be worth an estimated amount of USD 30 Mn, with Jason Njoku being the company’s largest individual shareholder.

Njeri Rionge – Co-founder Wananchi Online, Kenya

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Rionge is the co-founder of Wananchi Online, one of the leading internet services providers in East Africa’s cable, broadband, and Internet-based IP phone companies. This woman is regarded as one of the most successful entrepreneurs in Kenya, and her turning point was when she succeeded in turning a USD 500 K startup into the echelon internet form in the whole East African region. Wananchi Online now has a net valuation of no less than USD 175 Mn. She was one of the few people who went tooth and nail to put it out there that internet is not cut out alone for the elite, as just about anybody can found, build and make a fortune out of it. Her ISP company became massively successful so much that it rose to nearly USD 60 Mn in growth capital from a consortium private equity firm.

Mark Shuttleworth – Founder Knife Capital, South Africa

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Mark Shuttleworth is the founder of Thawte and Ubuntu/Knife Capital, South Africa. He founded Thawte when he was 22 to be a digital certificate and internet security company, which he later sold to VeriSign for USD 575 Mn in an all-stock deal. The company today is the second in the world when it comes to the provision of digital certification. When Shuttleworth was 26, he used a fraction of the proceeds from the Thawte sale to start a venture capital firm HBD Capital, which is today popularly known as Knife Capital, based on Cape Town. The firm invests in innovation-driven fintechs with proof of traction. Knife Capital was one of the participating investors in the Weetracker UberPitch series. Another of Shuttleworth’s founding was that of Ubuntu, a computer operation system that is distributed as free open-source software. The entrepreneur’s net worth is reported to be USD 500 Mn.

NEIP Disburses USD 10 Mn To Ghanaian SMEs

Andrew Christian October 16

The government of Ghana, through its flagship National Entrepreneurship and Innovation Plan Initiative (NEIP) has successfully funded 1,350 owners of Small and Medium Enterprises, with a total of USD 10 Mn in seed capital.

The disbursement is meant to aid these SMEs successfully set up their own business or vamp up the existing ones to gain some traction.
Each beneficiary of the scheme received an amount ranging between USD 2 K to GHC 20 K as financial support.

Owusu Karikari, the Director of Business Support at NEIP, told the press that the support is a loan expected to be refunded with a 10 percent interest, repayable within three years to enable more SMEs to expand and create more jobs.

According to him, NEIP identified the lack of knowledge about product development, limited market, insufficient management skills, lack of funding and little or no technical support a few of the many challenges facing SMEs in the region. He said that the support would shore up indigenous enterprises, so they have a competing chance with their international counterparts.

As part of the government’s support for small businesses, 7,000 more entrepreneurs have been taken through intensive training to build and handle their enterprises. This is quickly followed by the announcement of tax holidays for young entrepreneurs under 35 years of age, as is a respite for their businesses.

NEIP Business Support Program essentially concentrates on the provision of business development services, startup incubators and funding for early-stage businesses, seeking to enable them to grow and become successful.

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